The data collection phase of the Mcity Driverless Shuttle research project wrapped up in December 2019 and the shuttle is no longer in operation. Our research findings have been published in a new white paper, “Mcity Driverless Shuttle: What We Learned About Consumer Acceptance of Automated Vehicles.” 

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Driverless Technology

The Mcity Driverless Shuttle ran from June 4, 2018 through December 13, 2019. Our primary goal for this research project was to understand how passengers, pedestrians, bicyclists, and other drivers interacted with the shuttle as a way to gauge consumer acceptance of the technology.

The research project used two fully-automated, 11-seat, all-electric shuttles manufactured by the French firm NAVYA. In addition to LiDAR, which uses invisible laser beams to build a view of the surrounding environment, and GPS for localization, the two NAVYA Autonom Shuttles were equipped with on-board cameras and Wi-Fi communications to capture data generated during operation.

Gathering Rider Feedback

Exterior cameras captured the reaction and behavior of other road users, including other vehicles, bicyclists and pedestrians. Interior cameras recorded the reactions of riders inside the shuttle. This included the use of video and audio recordings, and photographs from the videos. Mcity also monitored ridership and usage patterns, and surveyed users about their experience. The data gathered will help researchers understand user trust over time, as well as how to design safer vehicles and how to operate them more efficiently.

M city Nayva driverless shuttle interior

Mcity Shuttle Resources

White Paper
Mcity Driverless Shuttle research project results are detailed in a white paper that includes the findings of J.D. Power’s consumer survey of people who interacted with the shuttle — passengers, pedestrians, bicyclists and drivers of other vehicles  —  and how that experience impacted their trust and acceptance of automated vehicle technology.  The paper also reviews the safety and operating protocols that led to a safe and successful project.

Read the white paper

Case Study
The primary goal of the shuttle research project was to understand human acceptance, trust, and behavior when riding in a driverless shuttle or interacting with one on the road. This case study documents our experience getting ready to launch the Mcity shuttle. We hope others considering similar shuttle services can benefit from what we learned.

Read the case study

For organizations launching a driverless shuttle program
Currently, there are no defined federal, state, or local regulations for signage along a driverless vehicle route. Download these graphics used for signs on the Mcity Driverless Shuttle route.